pyLXD development is done on Github. Pull Requests and Issues should be filed there. We try and respond to PRs and Issues within a few days.

If you would like to contribute major features or have big ideas, it’s best to post at the Linux Containers disucssion forum to discuss your ideas before submitting PRs. If you use [pylxd] in the title, it’ll make it clearer.

Adding a Feature or Fixing a Bug

The main steps are:

  1. There needs to be a bug filed on the Github repository. This is also for a feature, so it’s clear what is being proposed prior to somebody starting work on it.

  2. The pyLXD repository must be forked on Github to the developer’s own account.

  3. The developer should create a personal branch, with either:

    • feature/name-of-feature
    • bug/number/descriptive-name-of-bug

    This can be done with git checkout -b feature/name-of-feature from the master branch.

  4. Work on that branch, push to the personal GitHub repository and then create a Pull Request. It’s a good idea to create the Pull Request early, particularly for features, so that it can be discussed and help sought (if needed).

  5. When the Pull Request is ready it will then be merged.

  6. At regular intervals the pyLXD module will be released to PyPi with the new features and bug fixes.

Requirements to merge a Pull Request (PR)

In order for a Pull Request to be merged the following criteria needs to be met:

  1. All of the commits in the PR need to be signed off using the ‘-s’ option with git commit. This is a requirement for all projects in the Github Linux Containers projects space.
  2. Unit tests are required for the changes. These are in the pylxd/tests directory and follow the same directory structure as the module.
  3. The unit test code coverage for the project shouldn’t drop. This means that any lines that aren’t testable (for good reasons) need to be explicitly excluded from the coverage using # NOQA comments.
  4. If the feature/bug fix requires integration test changes, then they should be added to the integration directory.
  5. If the feature/bug fix changes the API then the documentation in the doc/source directory should also be updated.
  6. If the contributor is new to the project, then they should add their name/details to the CONTRIBUTORS.rst file in the root of the repository as part of the PR.

Once these requirements are met, the change will be merged to the repository. At this point, the contributor should then delete their private branch.

Code standards

pyLXD formats code with Black and isort. Verify the formatting with:

tox -e lint

If it fails, you can reformat the code with:

tox -e format


Testing pyLXD is in 3 parts:

  1. Conformance with Black and isort, using the tox -e lint command.
  2. Unit tests using tox -e py or tox -e coverage.
  3. Integration tests using the tox -e integration-in-lxd.


all of the tests can be run by just using the tox command on it’s own, with the exception of the integration tests. These are not automatically run as they require a working LXD environment.

All of the commands use the Tox automation project to run tests in a sandboxed environment.

Unit Testing

pyLXD tries to follow best practices when it comes to testing. PRs are gated by GitHub Actions and CodeCov. It’s best to submit tests with new changes, as your patch is unlikely to be accepted without them.

To run the tests, you should use Tox:


Integration Testing

Integration testing requires a running LXD system. They can be tested locally in LXD container with nesting support; tox -e integration-in-lxd.